Soil deterioration and degradation have significantly increased in the last decade. Efficient and systematic monitoring of soil is becoming urgently needed. Near Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy ( NIRS) in the 780-2500 nm range is a rapid, non-destructive, cost effective and efficient method to monitor the chemical, physical (such as particle size and porosity) and biological properties (such as microbial biomass) of the soil. The reflection spectra are converted into absorbances which give information about vibrations in C_H, O-H and N-H bonds in the soil. These absorbances are relatively weak because they result from combinations or overtones. Although, a qualitative assessment of the soil properties is possible by visually inspecting the soil and spectra. The quantitative assessment can be done by only using statistical methods such as chemometrics. The emergence of hand-held near IR spectrometers could provide a large amount of spatial data for soil monitoring conditions.